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by Lou Shook

508 pages
Rome's first Civil Strife, Populares vs Optimates, 133 BC. Rome expanded beyond borders of Italy, into Gaul, Spain and Greece, led by Gaius Marius. Great Civil War, Caesar and Populares defeat Pompey and Rome's Senate Optimates - followed by death of Pompey 48 BC, and death of Caesar 44 BC.

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Category: History
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About the Book
Rome’s growth continued, following the defeat of Carthage (146 BC), ending the Numantine War (133 BC). However, the Roman republic was bloated with the effects of extensive expansion abroad, challenging the fundamental values of Roman culture. Tiberius Gracchus was passing laws of reform to help rectify this domestic crisis – and was assassinated by the patrician favoring majority of the Senate, led by his cousins Scipio Nasica and Scipio Aemilianus (husband of Tiberius’ sister, Sempronia Graccha).

This was followed by Lucius Opimius (Roman consul in 121 BC) in the slaying of Gaius Gracchus (brother of Tiberius) and ordering the execution of 3,000 supporters of Gaius Gracchus without trial – in opposition to Gaius support of social reforms, far wider reaching than those of his brother Tiberius. The next major impact was the reforms to the Roman Legions instituted by Gaius Marius, leading to the eventual collapse of the Republic. The legions became more loyal to their generals rather than the state. The loyalty of such legions is what allowed Marius himself, Sulla, and eventually Julius Caesar to march on Rome. It led ultimately to the destruction of the Republican form of government and to the principate system of the Empire.


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About the Author
Lou Shook Lou Shook graduated as a mechanical engineer from Stevens Institute of Technology and worked at Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. for a number of years. After bouncing around a bit, he created his own company designing and building homes, though the desire to write was always there. Lou’s marvelous wife Sally keeps him in order. They live in Virginia.



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